Working Paper Series - College of Business

Can the Media Affect Innovation Adoption?

2014-06

Authors:

Scott Benjamin
Assistant Professor
Florida Institute of Technology
Nathan M. Bisk College of Business
150 West University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901
sbenjamin@fit.edu

Rhonda Reger
Professor The University of Tennessee
419 Stokely Mgt. Center
Knoxville, TN 37996
rreger@utk.edu

Michael D. Pfarrer
Associate Professor
University of Georgia
420 Brooks Hall
Athens, GA 30602
mpfarrer@uga.edu

Abstract

This paper develops and tests theory about how media coverage influences technological innovation adoption. Specifically, we examine the effects of news media (1) attention, (2) tenor, (3) diversity of issues and (4) specific content areas on the likelihood and speed of adoption of U.S. wind power plants. The affect and cognition-based theory developed in this paper suggests that news media affects the appraisals of various primary stakeholders as they seek to make sense of the value of a proposed innovation. We add to the nascent market infomediaries research literature in four important ways: providing empirical evidence for decreasing returns to media attention, examining the effect of specific content coverage, providing further empirical evidence of the importance of tenor alone and in interaction with content, and demonstrating the effect of media on a new dependent variable not previously studied in media effects on market outcomes research. This study adds to the innovation literature by highlighting the influence of an important set of non-market actors, the news media, on the diffusion of innovations. It also adds to the managerial and organizational cognition literature by suggesting that affective content (emotions) and specific aspects of content (cognition) on the part of third party infomediaries are associated with innovation diffusion.

 

 


 

 

The Effects of Nonmarket Strategies on Innovation Adoption

2014-05

Author:

Scott Benjamin 
Assistant Professor 
Florida Institute of Technology
Nathan M. Bisk College of Business
150 West University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901 
sbenjamin@fit.edu

 

Abstract

This paper investigates how firms can employ nonmarket strategies in an effort to increase the likelihood that their innovations will become adopted by the market. I propose that industry participants and entrepreneurs invest resources to influence (1) governmental decision makers to enact laws and regulations favorable to the industry and (2) infomediaries to provide exposure necessary to establish legitimacy for their innovation. These nonmarket strategic actions result in increased likelihood and more rapid adoption of new technology by stakeholders. Using the U.S. wind industry as my context, I empirically test if campaign contributions, lobbying efforts and the creation of information subsidies submitted to the media by industry participants lead to favorable policy changes and increased infomediary coverage which subsequently increases the likelihood of specific wind projects becoming adopted by a community.

 


 

 

Gender Factors in STEM Field Curriculum: A Case Study in Online Learning

2014-04

Authors:

Christian Sonnenberg
Academic Chair, Information Systems, Online Programs
Assistant Professor
Florida Institute of Technology
Nathan M. Bisk College of Business
150 West University Blvd.Melbourne, FL 32901
csonnenb@fit.edu

Jarin Eisenberg
Program Coordinator, Online Programs
Florida Institute of Technology
Nathan M. Bisk College of Business
150 West University Blvd.Melbourne, FL 32901
jeisenberg@fit.edu

 

Abstract

A number of studies have been done in the past on the relationship between gender and academic performance both in traditional and distance learning environments. While this research has typically shown minimal interaction on a broad level, few studies have been done to identify differences in academic performance specifically for “technical” courses. These are courses that fall into the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics areas, or STEM, which are an increasingly pivotal area of concern for gender-related education gaps. This paper provides an initial case study of a number of technical courses in graduate level courses, identifying which assessments students of each gender excel in. A comparative analysis is made against non-technical courses as well as additional contributing factors such as age and ethnicity.


Unsustainable Public Financing – Sustainability’s Emerging Vulnerability

2014-03

Authors:

Michael H. Slotkin
Associate Professor, Economics
College of Business
Florida Institute of Technology
150 W. University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901
mslotkin@fit.edu

Alexander R. Vamosi
Associate Professor, Economics
Associate Dean for Academics
College of Business
Florida Institute of Technology
150 W. University Blvd. Melbourne, FL 32901
avamosi@fit.edu

 

Abstract

The criterion that the actions of current generations should not relegate future generations to a compromised standard of living is the central plank of sustainability. Hartwick (1977) operationalized this concept by showing that a non-decreasing capital stock could provide the building blocks for perpetually, non-declining consumption, provided that sufficient investment occurs. While the primary focus of environmental economic decision-making concerns market-based incentives (e.g., Pigouvian taxes, tradable allowances) as a pathway towards efficiency, one increasingly important and mostly overlooked issue involves the susceptibility of environmental and physical capital to the misfortunes of municipal finance. Preservation of community assets is oftentimes the domain of city and county governments and the property tax base which supports their conduct. In this paper we describe how a tax revenue implosion has hampered sustainability efforts in Brevard County, Florida, highlighting both sources of the problem and examples of affected programs.


Betting Lines and College Football Television Ratings

2014-02

Authors:

Steven Salaga
Assistant Professor
College of Business
Florida Institute of Technology
150 W. University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901
ssalaga@fit.edu

Scott Tainsky
Assistant Professor
Department of Recreation, Sport and Tourism
University of Illinois
104 Huff Hall, MC-584
1206 South Fourth Street
Champaign, IL 61820
tainsky@illinois.edu

Abstract

Speculation has long proposed that interest in live sports programming has been fueled by the gambling market. Using a unique data set of Nielsen television ratings for Pac-12 college football games, we test for an association between television viewership and betting lines. We find evidence that within-game television ratings are sensitive to the relationship between game dynamics and wagering lines. Based on the rising value of live sports programming, the NCAA stands to benefit from the positive relationship between the gambling market and its televised product.

 

 


Maintaining Thematic Consistency within Mobile Content Adaptation

 2014-01

Author:

Christian Sonnenberg
Academic Chair, Information Systems, Online Programs
Assistant Professor
Florida Institute of Technology
Nathan M. Bisk College of Business
150 West University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901
csonnenb@fit.edu

Abstract

The mobile web presents many challenges for users and developers alike. It is difficult to properly craft an acceptable user experience given the constraints of mobile devices. A developer might choose to create an alternative version of their site from scratch, which can be time-consuming and labor intensive. They might also rely upon modern mobile browsers to handle the legwork, displaying web pages “as is”. Ideally, a mobile site should be designed to enhance a mobile user’s experience rather than serve up content designed for desktops. In order to facilitate this process, a number of frameworks and mechanisms have been created to optimize the user experience.

The following paper presents a study of techniques for “content adaptation”, the process of adapting content from desktop sites and displaying them optimized for the mobile web based on a number of factors. Included in this discussion is an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of current systems. In particular, this discussion focuses a new framework along with additional enhancements to account for thematic consistency. Adaptation algorithms generally do not account for site-wide thematic elements like headers and logos, which may get lost in the conversion. Proper branding and site identification are important for the users to keep context within a complex site.

 


 

Technology and Online Education: Models for Change

2013-06

Authors:

Catherine Cook
Academic Chair, Marketing, Online Program
Associate Professor
Florida Institute of Technology
Nathan M. Bisk College of Business
150 West University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901
catherine@fit.edu

 

Christian Sonnenberg
Academic Chair, Information Systems, Online Programs
Assistant Professor
Florida Institute of Technology
Nathan M. Bisk College of Business
150 West University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901
csonnenb@fit.edu

 

Abstract

This paper contends that technology changes advance online education. A number of mobile computing and transformative technologies will be examined and incorporated into a descriptive study. The object of the study will be to design innovative mobile awareness models seeking to understand technology changes for mobile devices and how they can be used for online learning. These models will take information from technology vicissitudes, online education systems, along with mobile device literature, and build a picture of past, current, and future trends for online learning. The application of such an approach should lead to a better definition of mobile awareness requirements and greater online visibility relative to selection of the appropriate model criteria and requirements. The models will identify online problem definitions, hardware and software advancements, analysis mobile objectives, and the selection of evaluation criteria and requirements to design online mobile awareness. By using technology vicissitudes, online education systems, and mobile device variables that are found in the literature, models can be designed to achieve awareness for online learning and changing technologies. These futuristic models can help to identify the appropriate techniques and methods to be used in facilitating the overall effort in future mobile devices for online learning. Hopefully, seamless technology integration and borderless networks for mobile awareness will motivate and benefit all future online teaching and learning groups.

 


Are Powerful Ceos “Green”? Evidence from Corporate Social Responsibility Indicators

 2013-05

Author:

Joan Wiggenhorn
Associate Professor of Finance
Nathan M. Bisk College of Business
Florida Institute of Technology

 

Abstract

This paper investigates the relationship between powerful CEOs and the environment. Using KLD statistics regarding both strengths and concerns about the environment, I test how powerful CEOS as measured by CEO pay disparity compared with top management and duality affect the environment. The OLS results are mixed. Duality has a positive effect on overall Environment Strengths and beneficial products. Powerful CEOs, as measured by pay disparity, positively affect management systems and voluntary programs but have a negative effect on clean energy. Regarding Environmental Concerns, both duality and pay disparity negatively impacts hazardous waste and ozone depleting chemicals. However, powerful CEOs, as measured by pay disparity, positively affect climate change.

 


Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process within the Hayes Wheelwright Framework for Component Supplier Selection in the Presence of Component Commonality and Diverse End Item Market Requirements

 2013-03

Authors

Martha Lair Sale
Academic Chair of Accounting
Associate Professor
Florida Institute of Technology
Nathan M. Bisk College of Business
150 West University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901
msale@fit.edu

Samuel Sale
Assistant Professor
School of Business
University of Texas
Brownsville

Abstract

Hill (2000) presents a tool called product profiling which is used to help managers make process choice decisions that are consistent with the characteristics of the markets in which their product compete. While other authors have modified and used this tool to support a variety of decisions other than process choice, it has not been shown to be appropriate for use in supplier selection. The purpose of this article is to show why profiling in its traditional form is not a convenient tool for supplier selection and suggests another method based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (Saaty 1994) as a mechanism for dealing with this highly complex scoring problem.

 


 

Development of a Measurement Instrument for Website Design: Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Multi-attribute Decision Modeling

2013-04

Authors

Martha Lair Sale
Academic Chair of Accounting
Associate Professor
Florida Institute of Technology
Nathan M. Bisk College of Business
150 West University Blvd.Melbourne, FL 32901
msale@fit.edu

Ronald G. Cheek
Associate Professor
College of Business Administration
University of Louisiana Lafayette

 

Abstract

The impact and importance of Social Media on organizations of all sizes continues to dramatically increase. Websites for 21st century organizations present their virtual addresses for customers, potential customers, employees, and other visitors. The question for many organizations is, “How do they measure their websites in comparison to others both inside and outside their industries?” Yet, limited academic research has been done in the area of a strategic website design. The purpose of this research was the development of a measurement instrument that could be used by organizations to produce an internally consistent, comprehensive measure of their website design. In our research 600 surveys were conducted on Inc. Magazine’s Top 500 list (2012) of fastest growing companies in the United States. The analysis of these surveys resulted in a list of shared elements (best practices) common to the websites surveyed. In this paper through the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Multi-attribute Decision Model (Saaty, 1994) we developed a measure by which companies can assess their web presence in comparison to this best practices model. This model provides an internally consistent, comprehensive model against which to measure an organization’s website.

 


 

Are State Transparency Websites Transparent?

2013-01

Author

Deborah S. Carstens, Ph.D., PMP
Director, ABTA Institute
Academic Chair, Project Management, Online MBA Program
Associate Professor, Information Systems
Florida Institute of Technology
Nathan M. Bisk College of Business
150 West University Blvd.
Melbourne, Fl. 32901
carstens@fit.edu

Abstract

State government budgets and performance reports are voluminous and difficult to understand by the average citizen.  The research problem is to discuss Website technical content that must be present in order to provide the scope of information necessary to increase transparency in government spending.  The technical characteristics were developed through researching the needs of the public in identifying government spending information of interest.  Three areas of focus are presented.  First, a study of state transparency Websites for all fifty states was conducted.  The study consisted of a heuristic evaluation assessing state transparency Websites off of a checklist developed from the current literature containing types of technical content.  Second, the results from the heuristic evaluation are displayed which ranks each state by the score received on technical content for each state transparency Website.  Third, analysis of the results identified lessons learned from evaluating major state transparency Websites from a technical perspective that has been presented in the form of a guideline for developers of these sites to provide guidance on improving the technical characteristics of state transparency Websites. 


The Major League Baseball Draft: Training and Employment Outcomes

2013-02

Author

Steven Salaga
Assistant Professor
College of Business
Florida Institute of Technology
150 W. University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901
ssalaga@fit.edu

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between training and employment outcomes in a specialized labor market. Using historical Major League Baseball (MLB) Draft data, a period of market adjustment is identified in the mid-1970s where a drastic increase in the selection of four-year college players occurs. Over the Draft’s history, college draftees, with enhanced levels of training, were 19.76% more likely to reach MLB as compared to high school selections. However, once reaching MLB, high school players were on average 35.57% more likely to remain employed in the MLB labor market as compared to their college counterparts. These findings suggest that the relationship between training and employment outcomes may be more group-specific in the specialized labor markets of professional sport than previously observed in the literature.